Other Superiors

Parjanya Maharaja

Krsna's fair-complexion, white-haired and white-attired grandfather is named Parjanya Maharaja, because he is like a great cloud (parjanya) showering the nectar of auspiciousness. He is the best of all the residents of Vraja.

Desiring a worthy descendant, he followed the advice of Devarsi Narada and engaged in the worship of Lord Narayana, the husband of Laksmi. As he was worshiping Narayana at Nandisvara-pura, a pleasant voice spoke the following words from the sky.

"Because of your pious austerities you will obtain five sons. Of these sons the middle one, named Nanda, will be the best. Nanda's glorious son will delight the residents of Vraja. He will defeat all oppositions. Both the demigods and demons will worship Him, touching the jewels of their crowns to His lotus feet."

Hearing this, Parjanya Maharaja became happy and decided to reside at the place. He lived there until he saw the Kesi demon arrive and at that time he became frightened and fled with all his associates to Mahavana.

Parjanya Maharaja's brothers are named Urjanya and Rajanya and his sister is an expert dancer named Suverjana. Her husband is named Gunavira and they live in the town named Surya-kunja.

Having taken a vow of friendship in their youth, Parjanya and Sumukha (Krishna's maternal grandfather) always remain the best of friends. Nanda Maharaja and many other of the cowherds are descended from their families.


Krsna's grandmother Variyasi is respected in the land of Vraja. She is short in stature and her complexion is the colour of a kusumbha flower. She is attired in green garments and her hair is the color of milk.


Lord Balarama's mother is named Rohini, because she is filled with a constantly rising (arohini) flood of transcendental bliss. Although she dearly loves her son Balarama, she loves Krsna millions of times more.


Upananda's complexion is pink. He has a long beard and wears green garments. Tungi-devi is his dear wife. Both her complexion and garments are the colour of a cataka bird.

Kandava and Dandava are the two sons of Upananda. Their faces are as beautiful as lotus flowers and they become especially happy in the association of their friend Subala.


Abhinanda wears dark garments and his long beautiful beard is like a great conchshell. Pivari-devi is his wife. She wears blue garments and her complexion is pink.


Sannanda is also known as Sunanda. His complexion is white and he wears dark-colored clothing. He has two or three white hairs and he is very dear to Lord Kesava. Kuvalaya-devi is Sannanda's wife. Her complexion is the colour of a blue lotus flower and she wears red garments.


Nandana wears garments the color of a candata flower and his complexion is like the color of a peacock. Nandana lives in the same house with his father, Parjanya Maharaja. He is full of love for his yound nephew Krsna. Atulya-devi is Nandana's wife. Her complexion is like lightning and her garments resemble a dark cloud.


Krsna's energetic and enthusiastic maternal grandfather is named Sumukha. His long beard is like a great conchshell and his complexion is the color of a ripe jambu fruit.

Carumukha is Sumukha's younger brother. His complexion is the color of black eye-cosmetics and his wife Balaka-gopi was raised by her stepparents.

Kila, Antakela, Tilata, Krpita, Purata, Gonda, Kallota, Karanda, Tarisana, Varisana, Viraroha and Vararoha are among the contemporary associates of Krsna's maternal grandfather.

Patala devi

Queen Patala-devi is Krsna's maternal grandmother and she is very famous in Vrajabhumi. Her hair is the white color of yogurt, her complexion is the pink color of a patala flower and her garments are green.

Patala-devi's dear friend is named Mukhara-gopi. Out of intense affection for her friend, Mukhara used to feed the infant Yasoda with her own breast milk.

Bharunda, Jatila, Bhela, Karala, Karabalika, Gharghara, Mukhara, Ghora, Ghanta, Ghoni, Sughantika, Dhvankarunti, Handi, Tundi, Dingima, Manjuranika, Cakkini, Condika, Cundi, Dindima, Pundavanika, Damani, Damari, Dambi and Danka are among the contemporary associates of Krsna's maternal grandmother.


Gola is the brother of Patala-devi, Krsna's maternal grandmother. His garments are the color of smoke. His brother-in-law, Sumukha, used to make fun of him and laugh and because of this Gola was very angry with him. Because he had worshiped Durvasa Muni in his previous birth, Gola was allowed to take birth in Vrajabhumi in the family of Ujjvala.

Jatila-devi is Gola's wife. She has a large belly and her complexion is the color of a cow. Her sons Yasodhara, Yasodeva and Sudeva head the group of Krsna's maternal uncles.

Krsna's maternal uncles have complexions like the color of a dark atasi flower and they dress in white garments. Their wives have complexions like karkati flowers and they dress in smoke-colored garments.

Paurnamasi devi

Full of transcendental opulences, Paurnamasi-devi is the incarnation of the Lord's Yogamaya potency. She makes the arrangements of Lord Krsna's pastimes to be properly performed. She is slightly tall in stature and has a fair complexion. Her hair is the color of kasa flowers and she wears red garments. She is greatly respected by Nanda Maharaja and all the other residents of Vrajabhumi. She was the dear student of Devarsi Narada and on his advice she left her favorite son, Sandipani Muni, in Avantipura and came to Gokula, impelled by great love for her worshipable Lord Krsna.